The Challenges and Opportunities of 5G Roaming

Some argue that 5G standalone networks are designed primarily for machines rather than humans, and there's some validity in this claim. For our everyday needs, LTE networks are more than sufficient. However, 5G introduces entirely new realms beyond human experience, with terabytes of data (big data) and near-instantaneous low latencies (milliseconds).

As we navigate the transformations brought by Industry 4.0—comprising digital connectivity and sensors, digital engineering, and digital operations—it becomes evident that the international architecture of collaborative telecommunications networks must evolve to meet these challenges. Moreover, in an era where businesses transcend borders due to globalization, adopting smart 5G roaming services becomes imperative to address the demands of the next industrial revolution.

What is roaming?

For many, data roaming has traditionally meant higher costs for using voice, text and data services outside their home country. This is because a tablet, phone or other device connects to the local network wherever it happens to be in the world. With each evolution of mobile technology, the complexity of roaming solutions grew. This resulted in half-measures such as forcing devices to switch to a previous generation (N-1)G when the current generation (N) couldn't handle it. This approach is incongruent with the vision of a new industry built on digital data exchange.

Due to gradual developments over many years, current roaming solutions are primarily tailored to voice calls and basic data transmission. This state of affairs is clearly inadequate for large-scale industrial applications.

Why is 5G roaming needed?

Roaming agreements that have already been established between 5G networks demonstrate the readiness of the market to leverage the full potential of 5G technology. Whether you are on your home network or abroad, 5G roaming promises faster speeds, reduced latency, enhanced device connectivity, and improved security.

The need for 5G roaming is closely tied to the lifecycle of telecommunications networks. The deployment of 5G networks involves reclaiming radio access network (RAN) frequencies through a process known as refarming. This leads to the gradual phasing out of 2G and especially 3G networks. As 3G networks are retired, it becomes imperative to implement Voice over LTE (VoLTE) solutions swiftly in 4G networks. This, in turn, necessitates adjustments to roaming agreements. Customers increasingly demand access to advanced 5G services even when outside their home country. Notably, the implementation of 5G does not provide a fallback option to previous mobile network generations, such as 2G or 3G, especially for voice calls.

However, the most compelling reason for implementing 5G roaming is to pave the way for the global provision of Internet of Things (IoT) services—often referred to as 5G Reduced Capability or ”RedCap”. This is tailored for mid-tier use cases, offering a balanced mix of capabilities in terms of throughput, battery life, device complexity, and device density. These features make it cost-effective for powering a wide range of use cases that don't always require the high-performance capabilities of standard 5G technology. It's important to note that, for RedCap to function optimally, it relies on 5G standalone (SA).

To enable Industry 4.0 applications worldwide, 5G SA roaming is a fundamental requirement. It's a seemingly straightforward necessity in our journey towards realizing the potential of next-generation technologies.

How does 5G roaming differ from its predecessors?

In the realm of 5G technology, roaming operations will take place on a peer-to-peer basis facilitated by the use of security edge protection proxy (SEPP) nodes. However, these operations will now employ a new connectivity protocol via HTTP/2 over TLS. IPX operators, who often provide wholesale roaming platform services, have been promoting their solutions, including hosted SEPP services, for some time. Furthermore, prominent 'carrier of carriers' operators are already advertising 5G standalone and non-standalone 5G international roaming solutions.

For mobile operators, a significant challenge lies in the swift integration of the SEPP node into the 5G SA network. This task is not trivial, as not all suppliers are prepared to provide SEPP nodes or collaborate with those from other suppliers. As a result, there are offers of hosted SEPP functions from major transit players.

The SEPP network function as a non-transparent proxy node, tasked with safeguarding application layer control plane messages exchanged between network functions located in distinct public land mobile networks (PLMNs). The SEPP plays a crucial role in ensuring the security of Internet connections between 5G networks and maintaining data integrity throughout the process of 5G roaming message exchange. The SEPP's specifications are well-defined in ETSI/3GPP recommendations, with an essential reference being TS 33.501. From an inventory perspective, TS 28.541 is particularly significant.

How can Comarch help?

Comarch is perfectly placed to serve customers in the realm of 4G/5G roaming, including Diameter signalling and IR.21 roaming documents. Our solutions have been successfully implemented for a “carrier of carriers” class operator. Additionally, thanks to a project undertaken in the Far East, we have already established the inventory of the 5G core components. These include network functions modelled in accordance with 3GPP/ETSI 28.541 standards, encompassing elements such as SEPP and UPF (user plane function), as well as HTTP/2 Nxx trails, such as N32 and N9.

In the 5G standalone (SA) environment, we offer automation for a range of classic OSS tasks, including:

  • Inventory management of SEPP objects, with data sourced via auto-discovery and reconciliation, which even includes REST API event-based methods
  • Inventory and visualization of network connectivity for HTTP/2 connections that converge in SEPP, covering trails such as N.32f and N32c
  • Planning and provisioning of objects within the inventory database
  • Planning and provisioning of roaming relations
  • Maintenance and tracking of IR.21 documents for mobile network operators (MNOs)

These capabilities empower us to deliver efficient and streamlined solutions for 5G SA environments.

Author

Tomasz Balcerak
Tomasz Balcerak
Mobile Core Product Manager

Tomasz Balcerak holds a Master's degree in Telecommunication Engineering from The Silesia University of Technology, and gained further expertise by completing Management of Telco Networks Postgraduate Studies at the National Institute of Telecommunication. With nearly three decades of experience in the telecommunications industry, his career has evolved from a telco traffic engineer to roles as an SS7/Diameter signalling expert. Tomasz is currently a Mobile Core Product Manager at Comarch Telecommunication OSS Business Unit, focusing on implementing innovative 5G core inventory solutions.

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width: 100%; height: 122px;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 16px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 16px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">NID<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">6 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 16px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">PREF<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 16px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">khcookie<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">as soon as you close your browser<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of Google:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////policies.google.com//privacy/">https:////policies.google.com//privacy","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"issuu","name":"Issuu","category":"3","description":"

/u00a0This is a service provided by Issuu Inc for Comarch that enables the presentation of PDF documents in the form of flipbooks and social media posts.<\/p>","company":"<p>Issuu Inc<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>The type of the computer\u2019s operating system<\/li>\r\n<li>The type of internet browser software<\/li>\r\n<li>Browser history<\/li>\r\n<li>Device information<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%; height: 209px;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_fbp<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">3 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">CookieConsent<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_gcl_au<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">3 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_pin_unauth<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_uetvid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">__qca<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_uetsid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 day<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">mp_{ID}_mixpanel<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_gid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 day<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_ga<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of Issuu:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////issuu.com//legal//privacy/">https:////issuu.com//legal//privacy","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"linkedin","name":"linkedin.com","category":"3","description":"

This is a service provided by LinkedIn Ireland Unlimited for Comarch that tracks and analyzes the visitors behavior on the website.<\/p>","company":"<p>LinkedIn Ireland Unlimited<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>Operating system information<\/li>\r\n<li>Device identifier<\/li>\r\n<li>ISP or mobile network provider<\/li>\r\n<li>IP Address<\/li>\r\n<li>Referrer URL<\/li>\r\n<li>Add-ons information<\/li>\r\n<li>Browser information<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%; height: 209px;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">UserMatchHistory\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">30 days<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">li_sugr<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">3 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">BizographicsOptOut<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">10 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_guid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">3 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">li-oatml<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 month<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">li_fat_id<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 month<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">U<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">3 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">bcookie<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">lang<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">Session<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">lidc<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 day<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>\r\n<p><\/p>\r\n<p><\/p>\r\n<p><\/p>\r\n<p><\/p>\r\n<p><\/p>\r\n<p><\/p>\r\n<p><\/p>\r\n<p><\/p>\r\n<p><br \/><br \/><\/p>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of LinkedIn:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////pl.linkedin.com//legal//privacy-policy#share\">https:\/\/pl.linkedin.com\/legal\/privacy-policy?#share<\/a><\/p>","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"twitter","name":"twitter.com","category":"3","description":"<p>This is a service provided by Twitter Inc. for Comarch that integrates a Twitter user\u2019s content into the website dynamically in a JavaScript application as well as integrates user interactions into the website owner\u2019s applications.\u00a0<\/p>","company":"<p>Twitter, Inc.<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>Browser type<\/li>\r\n<li>Operating system<\/li>\r\n<li>The referring web page<\/li>\r\n<li>Pages visited, location<\/li>\r\n<li>Mobile carrier<\/li>\r\n<li>Device information (including device and application IDs)<\/li>\r\n<li>Search terms (including those not submitted as queries)<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 50%; height: 523px;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">Duration to store the data<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">ct0\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">Persistent<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_twitter_sess<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">Session<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">guest_id<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">personalization_id\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">external_reference \u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">7 days<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">eu_cn<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">kdt<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">lang<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">Session<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">remember_check_on<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">Never<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">tfw_ex<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">14 days<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of Twitter:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////twitter.com//en//privacy/">https:////twitter.com//en//privacy","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"vimeo","name":"Vimeo Video","category":"3","description":"<p>This is a video player service provided by Vimeo Inc. for Comarch.<\/p>","company":"<p>Vimeo Inc.<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>Browser type<\/li>\r\n<li>Operating system<\/li>\r\n<li>Basic device information<\/li>\r\n<li>The web page the user visited or search query they entered before reaching the website<\/li>\r\n<li>Other users\u2019 activitie<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%; height: 257px;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 16px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 16px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">player<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">After 1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 16px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">_abexps<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">After 1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 16px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">vuid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">After 2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 16px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">continuous_play_v3 \u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">After 1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 16px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">_ga \u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 16px;\">After 2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_gcl_au<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">After 3 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_fbp<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">After 3 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of Vimeo:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////vimeo.com//privacy/">https:////vimeo.com//privacy","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"youtube","name":"YouTube Video","category":"3","description":"<p>\u00a0This is a video player service provided by Google Ireland Limited for Comarch.<\/p>","company":"<p>Google Ireland Limited<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>Referrer URL<\/li>\r\n<li>IP Address<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%;\">PREF\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%;\">10 years from set\/ update<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%;\">VISITOR_INFO1_LIVE\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%;\">8 months from set\/update<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%;\">use_hitbox \u00a0\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%;\">At end of session<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%;\">YSC\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%;\">At end of session<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of Google:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////policies.google.com//privacy/">https:////policies.google.com//privacy","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"ads-twitter","name":"ads-twitter.com","category":"4","description":"

This is an advertising service provided by Twitter Inc. for Comarch.<\/p>","company":"<p>Twitter, Inc.<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>Browser type<\/li>\r\n<li>Operating system<\/li>\r\n<li>The referring web page<\/li>\r\n<li>Pages visited, location<\/li>\r\n<li>Mobile carrier<\/li>\r\n<li>Device information (including device and application ids)<\/li>\r\n<li>Search terms (including those not submitted as queries<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%; height: 213px;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">ct0 \u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">Persistent<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">_twitter_sess<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">Session<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">guest_id\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">personalization_id \u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">external_reference \u00a0 -<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">7 days<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">kdt<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">lang\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">Session<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">remember_check_on<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">Never<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">tfw_ex<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">14 days<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 19px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">eu_cn<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.7014%; height: 19px;\">1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of Twitter:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////twitter.com//en//privacy/">https:////twitter.com//en//privacy","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"google-marketing-platform","name":"Google Marketing Platform (earlier as doubleclick.net)","category":"4","description":"<p>This is \u00a0an advertising and analytics platform for marketers (consisting of Display &amp; Video 360, Campaign Manager, and Search Ads 360).<\/p>","company":"<p>Google Inc.<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>The total time a user spends on the website<\/li>\r\n<li>The time a user spends on each webpage and in what order those pages are visited<\/li>\r\n<li>What internal links were clicked (based on the URL of the next pageview)<\/li>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>The geographic location of the user<\/li>\r\n<li>What browser and operating system are being used<\/li>\r\n<li>Screen size and whether Flash or Java is installed<\/li>\r\n<li>The referring site<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%; height: 108px;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">_ga<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">2 years2 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">_gid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">24 hours<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">_gat\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">1 minute<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">AMP_TOKEN<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">30 seconds to 1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 19px;\">_gac_ &lt;property-id<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 19px;\">90 days<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of Google:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"//cookie-policy///">https:////www.comarch.com//cookie-policy//","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"hubspot","name":"Hubspot","category":"4","description":"

This is an e-mail marketing automation system.<\/p>","company":"<p>HubSpot Inc.<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>Total time spent by the user on the site<\/li>\r\n<li>The amount of time a user spends on each page and in what order those pages are visited<\/li>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>User geographic location<\/li>\r\n<li>The type of internet browser software<\/li>\r\n<li>The type of the computer\u2019s operating system<\/li>\r\n<li>Device information<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%; height: 180px;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">__hs_opt_out<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">\u00a06 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">__hs_do_not_track<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">6 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">__hs_initial_opt_<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">7 days<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">__hs_cookie_cat_pref<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">6 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">__hs_gpc_banner_dismiss<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">180 days<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">&lt;id&gt;_key<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">14 days<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">__hstc<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">6 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">Hubspotutk<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">6 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">__hssc<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">30 minutes<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">__hssrc<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">session<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of HubSpot Inc.:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////legal.hubspot.com//privacy-policy?hubs_content=www.hubspot.com\/&amp;hubs_content-cta=Privacy%20Policy&amp;_gl=1*x3gpsp*_ga*Mjc1MDczODkuMTY4NzUyNDA2MQ..*_ga_LXTM6CQ0XK*MTY5MDIwMzEwMi4yLjAuMTY5MDIwMzExMC41Mi4wLjA.\%22>https:\/\/legal.hubspot.com\/privacy-policy<\/a><\/p>%22,%22data_purposes%22:%22%22,%22technologies%22:%22%22,%22attributes%22:%22%22,%22location_of_processing%22:%22%22,%22recipients%22:%22%22,%22distribution%22:%22%22,%22protection_officer%22:%22%22,%22further_information%22:%22%22},{%22id%22:%22mautic%22,%22name%22:%22Mautic (marketing-comarch.pl\/mtc.js)","category":"4","description":"<p>This is an e-mail marketing automation system.<\/p>","company":"<p>Comarch SA<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>Operating system<\/li>\r\n<li>Web browser version<\/li>\r\n<li>Name and surname, e-mail address, telephone number, company the user is linked to, branch, job position, country, consents to contact via phone and e-mails, other information made available by the user<\/li>\r\n<li>Other Comarch\u2019s websites visited by the user and the amount of time spent there<\/li>\r\n<li>Information if e-mails received by the user were opened by them<\/li>\r\n<li>Downloaded information available via e-mail or on the ca websites created in comarch content management system, version 1.1 and newer<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">mautic_device_id<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">mautic_referer_id<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">session<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>Own<\/p>","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"sizmek","name":"Sizmek by Amazon","category":"4","description":"<p>This is a service provided by Amazon Europe Core SARL for Comarch that allows to manage advertising content and monitor its effectiveness.<\/p>","company":"<p>Amazon Europe Core SARL<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>The type of the computer\u2019s operating system<\/li>\r\n<li>The type of internet browser software<\/li>\r\n<li>What web pages were viewed and at what time<\/li>\r\n<li>Device information<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%; height: 72px;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">OT_{ID}<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">\u00a0session<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">OT2\u00a0<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">3 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">u2<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">3 months<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of Sizmek by Amazon:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////sizmek.com//privacy-policy///">https:////sizmek.com//privacy-policy//","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"google-optimize","name":"GoogleOptimize","category":"2","description":"

System for testing different versions of websites.<\/p>","company":"<p>Google Inc.<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>IP address Browser type and settings<\/li>\r\n<li>\u00a0Device information<\/li>\r\n<li>\u00a0Information about the operating system<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%; height: 180px;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">_gaexp_rc<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">10 seconds<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">_opt_awcid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">24 hours<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">_opt_awmid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">24 hours<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">_opt_awgid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">24 hours<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">_opt_awkid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">24 hours<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">_opt_utmc<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">24 hours<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr style=\"height: 18px;\">\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">_opt_expid<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%; height: 18px;\">10 hours<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of Google:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////policies.google.com//privacy/">https:////policies.google.com//privacy","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"t-co","name":"t.co","category":"3","description":"

This is a service provided by Twitter Inc. for Comarch, the purpose of which is to protect users from harmful activity. Thanks to it, it is possible to maintain the appropriate quality of the displayed content.<\/p>","company":"<ul>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>Browser type<\/li>\r\n<li>Operating system<\/li>\r\n<li>The referring web page<\/li>\r\n<li>Pages visited, location<\/li>\r\n<li>Mobile carrier<\/li>\r\n<li>Device information<\/li>\r\n<li>Search terms<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>Browser type<\/li>\r\n<li>Operating system<\/li>\r\n<li>The referring web page<\/li>\r\n<li>Pages visited, location<\/li>\r\n<li>Mobile carrier<\/li>\r\n<li>Device information<\/li>\r\n<li>Search terms<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 100%;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">muc_ads<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">muc_ads<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p>Privacy Policy of Twitter:<\/p>\r\n<p><a href=https://www.comarch.com/"https:////twitter.com//en//privacy/">https:////twitter.com//en//privacy","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""},{"id":"spotify","name":"Spotify","category":"3","description":"

This is a digital music, podcast, and video service provided by Spotify USA Inc. for Comarch.<\/p>","company":"<p>USA Inc.<\/p>","collected":"<ul>\r\n<li>IP address<\/li>\r\n<li>Browser type and settings<\/li>\r\n<li>Browser history<\/li>\r\n<li>Device information<\/li>\r\n<li>Location<\/li>\r\n<\/ul>","duration":"<table style=\"border-collapse: collapse; width: 50%;\" border=\"1\">\r\n<tbody>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\"><strong>Cookie<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\"><strong>Duration to store the data<\/strong><\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">sp_landing<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">1 day<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">sp_t<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">1 year<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<tr>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">sp_m<\/td>\r\n<td style=\"width: 49.6333%;\">3 years<\/td>\r\n<\/tr>\r\n<\/tbody>\r\n<\/table>","legal_basis":"<p>External Provider.<\/p>\r\n<p><br \/>Privacy Policy of Spotify USA Inc:<\/p>\r\n<p>https:\/\/www.spotify.com\/us\/legal\/privacy-policy\/<\/p>","data_purposes":"","technologies":"","attributes":"","location_of_processing":"","recipients":"","distribution":"","protection_officer":"","further_information":""}],"category":{"1":{"name":"Necessary ","description":"<p>They are necessary to ensure the proper functioning of our website, therefore they do not require your consent.<\/p>\r\n<p>The purposes we pursue through the required cookies are described in point 3 (Purpose and legal basis) of the Cookie Policy.<\/p>","position":1},"2":{"name":"Analytical","description":"<p>With these cookies, we collect analytical data that helps us learn statistics about the use of our website and develop reports. As a result, we learn more about what should be modified and what content should be developed to make the site run more efficiently and better meet your personal needs. The purposes we pursue through the analytical cookies are described in point 3 (Purpose and legal basis) of the Cookie Policy.<\/p>","position":2},"3":{"name":"Social Media","description":"<p>These cookies come from our partners and allow us to share content from our website via external social media sites as well as display information from social media sites on our site, such as the videos from our profile. In addition, information obtained from these cookies may be used for advertising purposes on the particular social media platform that you use. Specific purposes we pursue through the social cookies are described in point 3 (Purpose and legal basis) of the Cookie Policy.<\/p>","position":3},"4":{"name":"Advertising","description":"We also track what you browse and read about on our website to further tailor the ads that are shown to you. In this way, we and our partners primarily show you ads that match your interests and are related to your interactions with our site. The purposes we pursue through the advertising cookies are described in point 3 (Purpose and legal basis) of the Cookie Policy.","position":4}}}" data-widget-class="" >

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